FOREST SITE PREPARATION (NOT FOR CONIFER RELEASE)

General Information

Resistance Management Guidelines

- Development of plant populations tolerant to auxiliary growth regulator mode-of-action is usually not a problem on non-cropland sites because these sites receive infrequent pesticide applications.

- Similar looking biotypes of a given weed species occurring in a treated area may vary in their susceptibility to a herbicide. Application of a herbicide below its labeled rate may allow more tolerant weeds to survive and a shift to more tolerant biotypes within the treated area.

- Where identified, spreading of resistant weeds to other fields may be prevented by cleaning harvesting and tillage equipment before moving to other areas and by planting weed-free seed.

- Contact your extension specialist, certified crop consultant, or Dow AgroSciences representative for the latest resistance management information.

Non-Cropland Areas, Forests, and Industrial Non-Crop Areas

Milestone VM Plus specialty herbicide controls broadleaf weeds, including invasive and noxious weeds on forests and non-cropland areas including industrial sites, rights-of-way (including roadsides, electric utility and communication transmission and distribution lines, pipelines, and railroads), non-irrigation ditch banks, natural areas (including wildlife management areas, wildlife openings, wildlife habitats, recreation areas, campgrounds, trailheads and trails), and grazed areas in and around these sites without injury to most grasses.

Use within sites listed above may include applications to seasonably dry wetlands (including flood plains, marshes, swamps, or bogs) and around standing water on sites such as deltas and riparian areas.

Use Precautions and Restrictions

Consult with a Dow AgroSciences representative if you do not understand the “Use Precautions and Restrictions.” Call (1-800-263-1196) for more information.

- Do not use grasses treated with Milestone VM Plus in the preceding 18-months for hay intended for export outside the United States.

- Hay from areas treated with Milestone VM Plus in the preceding 18-months CAN NOT be distributed or made available for sale off the farm or ranch where harvested unless allowed by supplemental labeling.

- Hay from areas treated with Milestone VM Plus in the preceding 18-months CAN NOT be used for silage, haylage, baylage and green chop unless allowed by supplemental labeling.

- Do not move hay made from grass treated with Milestone VM Plus within the preceding 18-months off farm unless allowed by supplemental labeling.

- Do not use grasses treated with Milestone VM Plus in the preceding 18-months for seed production.

- It is permissible to treat non-irrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands (such as flood plains, deltas, marshes, swamps, or bogs) and transitional areas between upland and lowland sites only when dry.

- Minimize overspray to open water when treating target vegetation in and around non-flowing, quiescent or transient water. When making applications to control unwanted plants on banks or shorelines of flowing water, minimize overspray to open water. Note: Consult local public water control authorities before applying this product in and around public water. Permits may be required to treat such areas.

- Avoiding Injury to Non-Target Plants: Do not aerially apply Milestone VM Plus within 50 feet of a border downwind (in direction of wind movement), or allow spray drift to come in contact with, any broadleaf crop or other desirable broadleaf plants, including, but not limited to, alfalfa, cotton, dry beans, flowers, grapes, lettuce, potatoes, radishes, soybeans, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, tomatoes or other broadleaf or vegetable crop, fruit trees, ornamental plants, or soil where sensitive crops are growing or will be planted. Avoid application under conditions that may allow spray drift because very small quantities of spray may seriously injure susceptible crops. Follow Precautions for Avoiding Spray Drift and Spray Drift Advisory under General Mixing and Application Instructions to minimize the potential for spray drift.

- Milestone VM Plus is highly active against many broadleaf plant species. Do not use this product on areas where loss of desirable broadleaf plants, including legumes, cannot be tolerated.

- Do not apply this product on lawns, turf, ornamental plantings, urban walkways, driveways, tennis courts, golf courses, athletic fields, commercial sod operations, or other high-maintenance, fine turfgrass areas, or similar areas.

- Do not use this product for impregnation on dry fertilizer, unless specified in a Dow AgroSciences state speciflc product bulletin.

- Chemigation: Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system.

- Do not contaminate water intended for irrigation or domestic purposes. Do not treat inside banks or bottoms of irrigation ditches, either dry or containing water, or other channels that carry water that may be used for irrigation or domestic purposes.

- Untreated trees can occasionally be affected by root uptake of Milestone VM Plus through movement into the soil or by excretion of the product from the roots of nearby treated trees. Do not apply Milestone VM Plus within the root zone of desirable trees.

- Crop Rotation: Do not rotate non-cropland to cropland for one year following an application of Milestone VM Plus. Do not plant a broadleaf crop until an adequately sensitive field bioassay shows that the level of aminopyralid present in the soil will not adversely affect that broadleaf crop.

- Applications made during periods of intense rainfall, to soils saturated with water, surfaces paved with materials such as asphalt or concrete, or soils through which rainfall will not readily penetrate may result in runoff and movement of Milestone VM Plus. Injury to crops may result if treated soil and/or runoff water containing Milestone VM Plus is washed, or moved onto land used to produce crops. Exposure to Milestone VM Plus may injure or kill susceptible crops and other plants, such as grapes, soybeans, tobacco, sensitive ornamentals. Do not treat frozen soil where runoff could damage sensitive plants.

- Seeding grasses:

- Preemergence: In general, Milestone VM Plus may be applied in the spring or early summer, depending on the target weed species, and grass planted after 4 months when conditions are favorable for grass establishment. With fall applications, do not plant grasses the following spring. Do not overseed ryegrass for 4 months after treatment.

- Postemergence: During the season of establishment, Milestone VM Plus should be applied only after perennial grasses are well established (have developed a secondary root system and are vigorous. Most perennial grasses are tolerant to Milestone VM Plus at this stage of development. Milestone VM Plus may suppress certain established grasses, such as smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis), especially when plants are stressed by adverse environmental conditions. Plants should recover from this transient suppression with the onset of environmental conditions favorable to grass growth and upon release from weed competition.

- Seeding Legumes or Wildflowers: Do not plant legumes or wildflowers until a soil bioassay has been conducted to determine if residues of Milestone VM Plus remaining in the soil will adversely affect establishment of legumes and wildflowers.

- Field Bioassay Instructions: In a representative section of an area previously treated with this product, plant short test rows of the intended species across the original direction of application in a manner to sample variability in field conditions such as soil texture, soil organic matter, soil pH, rainfall pattern or drainage. The field bioassay can be initiated at any time after application and before the planting of the intended species. Observe the seeded species for symptoms of herbicidal activity, such as poor stand (effect on seed germination), chlorosis (yellowing), necrosis (dead leaves or shoots), or stunting (reduced growth). If herbicidal symptoms do not occur, the intended seeded species may be planted. If herbicidal activity is observed, do not plant the field to the intended seeded species.

- Restrictions in Hay or Manure Use:

- Do not use treated plant residues, including hay or straw from areas treated within the preceeding 18-months, in compost, mulch or mushroom spawn.

- Do not use manure from animals that have grazed forage or eaten hay harvested from treated areas within the previous 3 days, in compost, mulch or mushroom spawn.

- Do not spread manure from animals that have grazed or consumed forage or hay from treated areas within the previous 3 days on land used for growing susceptible broadleaf crops.

- Manure from animals that have grazed forage or hay harvested from Milestone VM Plus-treated areas within the previous 3 days may only be spread on pasture grasses, grass grown for seed, and wheat.

- Do not plant a broadleaf crop in fields treated in the previous year with manure from animals that have grazed forage or hay harvested from Milestone VM Plus-treated areas until an adequately sensitive field bioassay is conducted to determine that the Milestone VM Plus residues in the soil is at a level that is not injurious to the crop to be planted.

- Do not plant a broadleaf crop in fields treated in the previous year with manure from animals that have grazed forage or hay harvested from Milestone VM Plus-treated areas until an adequately sensitive field bioassay is conducted to determine that the Milestone VM Plus residues in the soil is at a level that is not injurious to the crop to be planted.

- To promote herbicide decomposition, plant residues should be evenly incorporated in the surface soil or burned. Breakdown of Milestone VM Plus in plant residues or manure is more rapid under warm, moist soil conditions and may be accelerated by supplemental irrigation.

- Grazing and Haying Restrictions: There are no restrictions on grazing or hay harvest following application of Milestone VM Plus at labeled rates. Do not transfer grazing animals from areas treated with Milestone VM Plus to areas where sensitive broadleaf crops occur without first allowing 3 days of grazing on an untreated pasture. Otherwise, urine and manure may contain enough Milestone VM Plus to cause injury to broadleaf plants.

- Grazing Poisonous Plants: Herbicide application may increase palatability of certain poisonous plants. Do not graze treated areas until poisonous plants are dry and no longer palatable to livestock.

- Maximum Application Rate: On non-cropland areas, do not apply more than 9 pints per acre of Milestone VM Plus (0.11 lb acid equivalent aminopyralid and 1.12 lb acid equivalent triclopyr) per year. The total amount of Milestone VM Plus applied broadcast, as a re-treatment, and/or spot treatment per year, must not exceed 9 pints per acre. If products containing the same active ingredient are tank mixed, do not exceed the maximum allowable active ingredient rate per acre per application per year.

Application Methods

(Broadcast Equipment)

Ground Broadcast Application: Apply the labeled rate of Milestone VM Plus as a coarse low-pressure spray. Spray volume should be sufficient to uniformly cover foliage. Higher volumes (greater than 10 gallons per acre) generally provide better coverage and better control, particularly in dense and/or tall foliage canopies situations. To enhance foliage wetting and coverage, an approved non-ionic agricultural surfactant may be added to the spray mixture as recommended by the surfactant manufacturer.

Do not apply this product with mist blower systems that deliver very fine spray droplets. Use of mist blower equipment can reduce weed control and increase spray drift potential.

Aerial Broadcast Application: Apply the labeled rate of Milestone VM Plus as a coarse low-pressure spray. Spray volume should be sufficient to uniformly cover foliage. Increase spray volume to ensure thorough and uniform coverage when target vegetation is tall and/or dense.

Spray volumes greater than 2 gallons per acre generally provide better coverage and better control, particularly when the foliage canopy is dense and/or tall. To enhance foliage wetting and coverage, an approved non-ionic agricultural surfactant may be added to the spray mixture as recommended by the surfactant manufacturer. Also see Precautions for Avoiding spray Drift and Aerial Spray Drift Advisory.

(Hand-Held Equipment)

High-Volume Foliar Application: High volume foliar applications may be applied at rates equivalent to the broadcast-applied rate up to a maximum of 9 pints per acre per annual growing season. Use sufficient spray volume to thoroughly and uniformly wet foliage and stems. To ensure thorough wetting of high volume treatments, a high quality nonionic agricultural surfactant such as a non-ionic or methylated seed oil may be added to the spray mixture as recommended by the surfactant manufacturer. Multiple applications may be made, but the total amount of Milestone VM Plus applied must not exceed 9 pints per acre per year.

Low Volume Foliage Treatment

To control susceptible woody plants, apply up to 9 pints of Milestone VM Plus in 10 to 100 gallons of finished spray depending on plant density. The spray concentration of Milestone VM Plus and total spray volume per acre should be adjusted according to the size and density of target woody plants and kind of spray equipment used. With low volume sprays, use sufficient spray volume to obtain uniform coverage of target plants including the surfaces of all foliage, stems, and root collars (see General Use Precautions and Restrictions). For best results, a surfactant such as a non-ionic or methylated seed oil should be added to all spray mixtures. Match equipment and delivery rate of spray nozzles to height and density of woody plants. When treating tall, dense brush, a hose and spray gun with spray tips that deliver up to 2 gallons per minute at 40 to 60 psi may be required. Backpack or other types of specialized spray equipment with spray tips that deliver less than 1 gallon of spray per minute may be appropriate for short, low to moderate density brush.

Spot Application: Spot applications may be made at rates equivalent to the broadcast-applied rate of 4 to a maximum of 9 pints per acre per annual growing season. Spray volume should be sufficient to thoroughly and uniformly wet weed foliage. Use of a high quality nonionic agricultural surfactant may be added to the spray mixture as recommended by the surfactant manufacturer. Repeat treatments may be made, but the total amount of Milestone VM Plus applied must not exceed 9 pints per acre per year. To prevent misapplication, spot treatments should be applied with a calibrated boom, boomless spray system, handheld, or backpack sprayers.

Spot applications may be made at a rate of up to 0.22 lb acid equivalent aminopyralid (9 quarts of Milestone VM Plus) per acre; however, not more than 50% of an acre may be treated. Do not apply more than a total of 0.11 lb acid equivalent aminopyralid per acre (9 pints per acre of Milestone VM Plus) per annual growing season as a result of broadcast, spot or repeat applications.

Aerial Application

Aerial sprays should be applied using suitable drift control. (See Precautions for Avoiding Spray Drift and Aerial Drift Reduction Advisory). Add an agriculturally labeled non-ionic surfactant.

Limitations, Restrictions, and Exceptions

FOREST MANAGEMENT

- For best control from broadcast applications of Milestone VM Plus, use a spray volume which will provide thorough plant coverage. Recommended spray volumes are usually 10 to 25 gallons per acre by air or 10 to 100 gallons per acre by ground. To improve spray coverage of spray volumes less than 50 gallons per acre, add an agriculturally labeled non-ionic surfactant. Application systems should be used to prevent hazardous drift to off-target sites. Nozzles or additives that produce larger droplets of spray may require higher spray volumes.

Forest Site Preparation (Not for Conifer Release)

Use up to 9 pints of Milestone VM Plus and apply in a total spray volume of 10 to 30 gallons per acre. Use a non-ionic agricultural surfactant for all foliar applications. Tank mixtures with other herbicides registered for forest use may be necessary to control woody brush if brush is not sensitive to the use rates of this product. When tank mixtures of herbicides are used for forest site preparation, labels for all products in the mixture must be followed and the longest recommended waiting period before planting observed.

Restricted Entry Interval

48 hours