RESIN SOAKING - PINES
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION
Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system.
When Gramoxone Max is applied at less than 10 gallons per acre finished spray volume, a drift control or spray deposition additive SHOULD be used. Refer to the additive label for use directions.
Gramoxone Max is a contact herbicide used to control or suppress a broad spectrum of emerged weeds. Gramoxone Max controls most small annual weeds – both broadleaves and grasses, and suppresses perennial weeds by destroying green foliage. Gramoxone Max can also be used as a desiccant/defoliant at harvest.
Gramoxone Max is formulated as a liquid which contains 3 lbs. of active ingredient per gallon. The formulation contains a nontoxic odor and an emetic (an agent which will induce vomiting if the product is swallowed). The odor is included in the formulation to help prevent accidental ingestion of Gramoxone Max.
Gramoxone Max is rapidly absorbed by green plant tissue and interacts with the photosynthetic process to produce superoxides which destroy the plant cells. Gramoxone Max requires actively growing green plant tissue to function. Thorough coverage of all green foliage is essential for effective weed control and for effective crop desiccation/defoliation. Gramoxone Max is not as effective on drought-stressed weeds, weeds with little green foliage (i.e., mowed or cut weeds), or mature woody bark of trees and vines.
Clay and organic matter rapidly tie up Gramoxone Max. As a result, Gramoxone Max has no residual soil activity to affect later-planted crops or later germinating weeds.
Because Gramoxone Max is rapidly absorbed by the weed foliage, rain occurring 30 minutes or more after application will have no effect on the activity of Gramoxone Max.
Since Gramoxone Max is a contact-type herbicide, it is essential to obtain complete coverage of target weeds to get good control. Improper application technique and/or application to large, stressed, or mown weeds will usually result in unacceptable weed control and unacceptable crop desiccation/ defoliation. Complete coverage is also essential for good crop desiccation/defoliation. See details below for specific application instructions.
USE OF A NONIONIC SURFACTANT OR CROP OIL CONCENTRATE
Always add one of the following (Failure to use one of the following at recommended rates will result in reduced performance of Gramoxone Max.)
Nonionic Surfactant: Add nonionic surfactant containing 75% or more surface-active agent at 0.125% v/v (1 pt./100 gals.), OR add a nonionic surfactant containing 50-74% surface-active agent at 0.25% v/v (2 pts./100 gals.), of the finished spray volume for ground applications. For aerial applications, add a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v (2 pts./100 gals.) of the finished spray volume.
Crop Oil Concentrate: Add a nonphytotoxic crop oil concentrate containing 15-20% approved emulsifier, at 1.0% v/v (1 gal./100 gals.) of the finished spray volume for ground applications. For aerial applications, add 1 pt. of crop oil concentrate per acre. Do not use crop oil concentrate when using Gramoxone Max for cotton harvest aid.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Flush all spray equipment with water after use each day. Gramoxone Max is corrosive to aluminum. Aluminum spray equipment and aluminum aircraft structures that are exposed to spray solution or spray drift should be flushed thoroughly with water immediately after use.
In dry areas, dust stirred up by high winds or equipment tires can coat weed or plant leaves and reduce Gramoxone Max activity. Avoid applying Gramoxone Max in extremely dusty conditions.
LIMITATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
- For Cotton Harvest Aid: Do not pasture livestock in treated fields or feed treated foliage.
- DO NOT use around home gardens, schools, recreational parks, or playgrounds.
- In preplant and preemergence (to the crop) uses, do not apply to soils lacking clay minerals, i.e., peat, muck, pure sand, artificial planting media.
- Seedbeds and plantbeds should be formed as far ahead of planting and treatment as possible to permit maximum weed and grass emergence prior to treatment.
- Seeding or transplanting should be done with a minimum amount of soil disturbance.
- Gramoxone Max used for preplant weed control over the top of plastic mulch may damage transplants which come in contact with the plastic. Sufficient rainfall or sprinkler irrigation to cause wash-off prior to planting may be needed to prevent damage to the crop.
- Weeds and grasses emerging after application of Gramoxone Max will not be controlled or suppressed.
- Unless otherwise indicated, crop plants emerged at time of application may be severely injured or killed if contacted by sprays of Gramoxone Max.
Tree Selection – Select trees to be treated from stands on sites not subject to periods of extreme drought stress as the desiccating effect of Gramoxone Max to pines is accentuated during such periods, causing a reduction in the amount of oleoresin deposited in the xylem. Select trees to be treated from vigorous, nonstagnated stands, either natural or planted. In stagnated stands or commercial timber stands, plan treating with Gramoxone Max not sooner than three years after a commercial thinning.
Application Directions – Apply Gramoxone Max diluted in water to a suitable wound in the tree trunk to bring the treatment into contact with the xylem (sapwood).
Bark Streaks or Cuts: This type of wound is made using a standard or rotary bark hack or a chainsaw chipping tool employed in naval stores work to remove a single 1-inch wide streak of bark about 1-2 ft. from ground level. The total length should not exceed 1/3 of the tree circumference. Multiple streaks or cuts can result in serious girdling of the trunk and premature death of the tree. A coarse spray (about 1.7-5.0 ml.) Gramoxone Max solution (1-5% cation, wt./wt. basis) should be applied to runoff to the exposed xylem, using a low-pressure sprayer. The amount of spray required per cut depends on tree circumference and the length of cut or streak (1/3 of circumference). For a 9-inch diameter tree, 3 ml. of spray will cover the 1-inch wide streak. Using 3 ml. of a 2 or 4% Gramoxone Max solution will result in application of 60 or 120 mg. Gramoxone Max per streak.
Time of Treatment: Resin soaking can occur from treatments made any time of the year; however, cool season treatments under nondrought conditions usually result in less severe pine beetle infestations and longer tree life.
Interval Between Treatment and Tree Harvest: The interval between application of Gramoxone Max and tree harvest should be a minimum of 6 months and preferably from 12-24 months. Intervals of over 6 months may not be possible under conditions of drought or serious pine beetle attacks, which may make early harvest necessary. The Gramoxone Max treatment may encourage beetle attack, or may cause premature death of the tree. Desiccation of the xylem tissue, rather than the desired resin soaking, may occur, and is more likely at higher dosage rates.
Effect on Stem Growth: Gramoxone Max treatment can result in reduced stem growth during the interval between treatment and tree harvest.