FUMITOXIN tablets and pellets are used to protect stored commodities fromdamage by insects and other vertebrate pests. Fumigation of stored products with FUMITOXIN in the manner prescribed in the labeling does not contaminate the marketed commodity. FUMITOXIN metal phosphide fumigants are acted upon by atmospheric moisture to produce phosphine gas.
Phosphine gas is highly toxic to insects, burrowing pests, humans, and other forms of animal life. In addition to its toxic properties, the gas will corrode certain metals and may ignite spontaneously in air at concentrations above its lower flammable limit of 1.8% (v/v). These hazards will be described in greater detail later on in this Applicator’s Manual.
These gases are essentially nonflammable and act as inerting agents to reduce fire hazards.
FUMITOXIN is prepared in two spherical shapes. The rounded tablets weigh approximately 3 grams and will release 1 gram of phosphine gas. They are about 16mm in diameter. The pellets are about 10 mm in diameter, weigh approximately 0.6 gram and release 0.2 gram of phosphine gas.
FUMITOXIN Tablets are provided in 21kg cases, contain 14 resealable, gas-tight flasks of 500 tablets each or, 70 flasks of 100 tablets each.
FUMITOXIN Pellets are provided in 21kg cases containing 14 resealable, gas-tight flasks of 1660 pellets each or, 14 flasks of 2490 pellets each.
Upon exposure to air, FUMITOXIN pellets and tablets begin to react with atmospheric moisture to produce small quantities of phosphine gas. These reactions start slowly, gradually accelerates and then tapers off again as the aluminum phosphide is spent. FUMITOXIN pellets react somewhat faster than do the tablets. The rates of decomposition of the tablets and pellets will vary depending upon moisture and temperature conditions. For example, when moisture and temperature of the fumigated commodity are high, decomposition of FUMITOXIN may be complete in less than 3 days.However, at lower ambient temperatures and humidity levels, decomposition of FUMITOXIN may require 5 days or more. After decomposition, FUMITOXIN leaves a gray-white powder composed almost entirely of aluminum hydroxide and other approved inert ingredients. This will cause no problems if the fumigant has been added directly to a commodity such as grain. However, the spent powder must usually be retrieved for disposal after space fumigations. If properly exposed, the spent FUMITOXIN will normally contain only a small amount of unreacted aluminum phosphide and may be disposed of without hazard. While spent FUMITOXIN is not considered a hazardous waste, partially spent residual dusts from incompletely exposed FUMITOXIN will require special care..
FUMITOXIN tablets and pellets are supplied in gas-tight containers and their shelf life is unlimited as long as the packaging remains intact.Once opened for fumigation, the aluminumflasks of tablets or pelletsmay be tightly resealed and stored for future use.
Allowable and Recommended Dosages Rates
Phosphine is a mobile gas and will penetrate to all parts of the storage structure. Therefore, dosage must be based upon the total volume of the space being treated and not on the amount of commodity it contains.The same amount of FUMITOXIN is required to treat a 30,000-bushel silo whether it is empty or full of grain unless, of course, a tarpaulin seals off the surface of the commodity.
NOTE:Maximum Dosage for dates, nuts & dried fruits is 200 pellets, 40 tablets/1000 cu. ft.; 250 pellets, 50 tablets/1000 bu.
The above dosages are not to be exceeded. It is important to be aware that a shortened exposure period cannot be fully compensated for with an increased dosage of phosphine.
Somewhat higher dosages, not to exceed the maximum dosage, are usually recommended under cooler, drier conditions or where exposure periods are relatively short. However, themajor factor in selection of dosage is the ability of the structure to hold phosphine gas during the fumigation. A good illustration of this point is comparison of the low dosages recommended to treat modern, well-sealed warehouses with the higher ranges used for poorly constructed buildings that cannot be sealed adequately. In certain other fumigations, proper distribution of lethal concentrations of phosphine gas reaching all parts of the structure becomes a very important factor in dose selection. An example where this may occur is in the treatment of grain stored in tall silos. Poor gas distribution frequently results when the fumigant is added on top of the grain. In such cases, use of a lowflow recirculation system is recommended under these circumstances. Please contact Degesch America, Inc. if assistance is required in designing the recirculation system.