- Adult: Small, dark, leggy, two-winged insects that resemble mosquitoes.
- Larvae: Reddish or white maggots that become stationary once they start feeding. Eventually, their skin hardens into a brown shell or "flaxseed."
- Eggs: Small, slender and reddish. Laid end-to-end on the undersides of leaves.
Timing of damage: Fall and spring
Type of damage: Stunted growth, often with thickened bluish-green leaves.
Scouting: Identify poor stands and check the base of the plant for maggots or "flaxseed" by pulling back the sheaths of several leaves.
Economic threshold: None established. However, planting fly-resistant varieties and planting after the fly-free date will help reduce the chance of infestation.