VEGETABLE CROPS - MUCK OR PEAT

General Information

Directions for Use
Restricted Use Pesticide
It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.
Read all Directions for Use carefully before applying.

Do not apply this product in a way that will contact workers or other persons, either directly or through drift. Only handlers may be in the application block from the start of the application until the entry restricted period ends, and in the buffer zone during the buffer zone period. For any requirements specific to your state or tribe, consult the agency responsible for pesticide regulation.

Application Restrictions
The use of this product is restricted to the methods described in this label.

Soil fumigation using Telone C-35 must be conducted only according to directions and conditions of use.

Chemigation: Do not apply Telone C-35 through any type of irrigation system.

Do not formulate and/or tank mix this product into other end-use agricultural products.

Not for use in greenhouses or other enclosed areas.

An application block treated with Telone C-35 must not be within 100 feet of an occupied structure. No person shall be present at this structure at any time during the seven consecutive day period after the application is complete. EXCEPTION: This restriction does not apply to use on soils that have not experienced a 1,3-dichloropropene treatment in the previous two years, for example, on soils to be planted with fruit trees, nut and nursery crops, perennial vines, hops, mint, or pineapple.

Telone C-35 shall not be applied to soil more frequently than once each year.

Do not apply within 100 feet of any well used for potable water. Do not apply this product within 100 feet from the edge of karst topographical features. Karst topography is identified from landscape features that result from the dissolving activity of water in carbonate rock formations (limestone, dolomite and marble). Surface features that are associated with karst topography include sinkholes, caverns, springs, and sinking or disappearing streams. In North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Minnesota, New York, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Utah, and Montana: Where groundwater aquifers exist at a depth of 50 feet or less from the surface, do not apply this product where soils are Hydrologic Group A.

For Applications in California Only:
Use the buffer zone distances specified by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, which are found at the website listed below. Additional California Department of Pesticide Regulation requirements must also be followed including:
- Additional tarp requirements
- Application time restrictions
- Additional buffer zone restrictions for overlapping buffer zones and credits
- Additional emergency preparedness and response requirements

The certified applicator must follow all California buffer zone requirements and California restrictions that are specified at: www.cdpr.ca.gov/chloropicrin.htm.

Use Restrictions for Certain Florida Counties
For application of this product in Brevard, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Monroe, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, Seminole, St. Lucie, Sumter, and Volusia counties, applicators must have labeling for FIFRA Section 24(c) Special Local Need (SLN) FL-990005 in their possession and comply with stated requirements. Use of Telone C-35 is prohibited in Broward and Dade counties.

Use Restrictions for Certain New York Counties
This product is prohibited from sale, use or distribution in Nassau and Suffolk counties.

Certified Applicator Training
Any certified applicator supervising a soil fumigant application must have successfully completed one of the soil fumigant training programs listed on the following EPA web site http://www.epa.gov/fumiganttraining for the active ingredient(s) in this product. The training must be completed in the time frames listed on the web site. The FMP must document the date and location where the soil fumigant training program was completed.

Product Information
Before using this product, carefully read and follow all label precautions and directions.

Telone C-35 is a multi-purpose liquid fumigant for preplant treatment of cropland soil that can be used as part of a nematode and disease management program involving crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, sanitation, and other cultural practices designed to reduce nematode and disease pressure.

Telone C-35 may be applied as a preplant soil treatment as part of a management program to aid in reducing the damaging effects of certain soil borne diseases [soil rot (soil pox) of sweet potatoes; granville (bacterial) wilt, black root rot, black shank diseases of tobacco; verticillium wilt of strawberries, cole crops and mint, pink root of onions, and fusarium crown and root rot of tomatoes]. This is not a complete list of crops and soil borne diseases. Consult your crop advisor for recommendations on specific soil borne diseases.

Telone C-35 may be applied as a preplant soil treatment as part of a management program to control and aid in reducing the damaging effects of certain soil pests; plant parasitic nematodes (root-knot, root lesion, citrus, cyst formers, golden, sugarbeet, soybean, burrowing, lance, reniform, ring, spiral, sting, pin, stubby root, dagger, and certain others), symphylans (garden centipedes) and wireworms.

Before fumigation, soil sampling for the type and number of pests present is recommended. In fields where pre-treatment soil samples indicate the presence of high population levels of nematodes, a successful fumigation cannot be expected to eradicate entire populations. Therefore, post-treatment (mid-season and/or preharvest) sampling is recommended to determine the need for additional pest management practices.

Consult State Agricultural Experiment Station or Extension Service specialists for information on other practices such as post-harvest destruction of crop residues, weed control or other cultural practices, and use of nematode resistant crop varieties that may aid in reducing crop losses from soil borne pests.

Use Precautions
Recontamination Prevention
Telone C-35 will help manage certain soil borne pests that are present in the soil treatment zone at time of fumigation. It will not control pests that are introduced into soil after fumigation. To avoid reinfestation of treated soil do not use irrigation water, transplants, seed pieces, or equipment that could carry soil borne pests from infested land. Avoid contamination from moving infested soil onto treated beds through cultivation, movement of soil from below the treated zone, dumping contaminated soil in treated fields and soil contamination from equipment or crop remains. Clean equipment carefully before entering treated fields. Cultural practices which provide post-harvest destruction of crop residues and weeds prior to fumigation and practices which prevent weed infestation following fumigation and prior to planting will help prevent recontamination.

Equipment Clean-Up
Because Telone C-35 is corrosive under certain conditions, flush all application equipment with fuel oil, kerosene or a similar type of petroleum solvent immediately after use. Fill pumps and meters with new motor oil or a 50% motor oil/fuel oil mixture before storing. Do not use water. Dispose of rinsate by incorporation into field just treated or by other approved means. Never introduce rinsate or unused Telone C-35 into surface or underground water supplies.

Fertility Interactions
Fumigation may temporarily raise the level of ammonia nitrogen and soluble salts in the soil. This is most likely to occur when high rates of fertilizer and fumigant are applied to soils that are either cold, wet, acidic, or high in organic matter. To avoid injury to certain crops including red beets, carrots, corn, radishes, cole crops, legumes (beans), lettuce, onions, and sugarbeets, fertilize when possible as indicated by soil tests made after fumigation. To avoid ammonia injury or nitrate starvation (or both) to crops grown on high organic soils, do not use fertilizers containing ammonium salts.

regulations, liming of highly acid soils before fumigation may stimulate nitrification and reduce the possibility of ammonia toxicity. Certain nursery crops such as citrus seedlings, Cornus sp., Crataegus sp., spruce, and vegetable crops such as cauliflower have shown evidence of phosphorus deficiency following fumigation. To avoid this possible effect, additional phosphate fertilizer (foliar applied) is recommended where experience indicates a deficiency may occur.

Handlers
The following activities are prohibited from being performed by anyone other than persons who have been appropriately trained and equipped as handlers in accordance with the requirements in WPS (40 CFR Part 170):
- Monitoring fumigant air concentrations;
- Cleaning up fumigant spills (this does not include emergency personnel not associated with the application);
- Handling or disposing of fumigant containers;
- Cleaning, handling, adjusting, or repairing the parts of application equipment that may contain fumigant residues; and
- Performing any handling tasks as defined by the WPS(40 CFR Part 170).

The following activities are prohibited from being performed in the application block from the start of the application until the entry restricted period ends and in the buffer zone during the buffer zone period by anyone other than persons who have been appropriately trained and equipped as handlers in accordance with the requirements in WPS (40 CFR Part 170). (NOTE: Persons repairing and monitoring tarps are considered handlers for the duration listed below.) Prohibited activities (except for trained and equipped handlers) include:
- Participating in the application as supervisors, loaders, drivers, tractor co-pilots, shovelers, cross ditchers, or as other direct application participants;
- Installing, repairing, operating or removing irrigation equipment;
- Performing scouting, crop advising, or monitoring tasks;
- Installing, perforating (cutting, punching, slicing, poking), or removing tarps; and
- Repairing or monitoring tarps until 14 days after application is complete if tarps are not perforated and removed during those 14 days.

NOTE: See Tarp Perforation and/or Removal section on this labeling for requirements about when tarps are allowed to be perforated.

Handlers do not include local, state, or federal officials performing inspection, sampling, or other similar official duties.

Protection for Handlers
Supervision of Handlers
For all applications from the start of the application until the application is complete, a certified applicator must be at the application block in the line of site of the application and must directly supervise all persons performing handling activities.

For handling activities that take place after the application is complete until the entry restricted period expires, the certified applicator is not required to be on site but must have communicated in a manner that can be understood by the site owner and handlers responsible for carrying out those activities the information necessary to comply with the label and procedures described in the FMP (e.g., emergency response plans and procedures).

IMPORTANT: This requirement does not override the requirements in the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides for information exchange between operators of agricultural establishments and commercial pesticide applicators.

The certified applicator must provide Fumigant Safe Handling Information to each handler or confirm that within the past 12 months, each handler has received Fumigant Safe Handling Information in a manner that he/she can understand. Fumigant Safe Handling Information will be provided where this product is purchased or at http://www.epa.gov/fumiganttraining.

For all handling tasks at least two handlers must be present.
Exception: After the application is complete, only one trained handler is required to perform fumigant site monitoring tasks outside of the buffer zone.

Exclusion of Non-Handlers From the Application Block and Buffer Zone
The certified applicator supervising the application and the owner of the establishment where the application is taking place must make sure that all persons who are not trained and PPE-equipped and who are not performing one of the handling tasks as stated in this label are:
- excluded from the application block during the entry restricted period, and
- excluded from the buffer zone during the buffer zone period (see buffer zone exemption for transit on roadways in Buffer Zone Requirements section).

Local, state, or federal officials performing inspection, sampling, or other similar official duties are not excluded from the application block or the buffer zone by this labeling. The certified applicator supervising the application and the owner of the establishment where the application is taking place are not authorized to, or responsible for, excluding those officials from the application block or the buffer zone.

Providing, Cleaning, and Maintaining PPE
The employer of any handler (as stated in this label) must make sure that all handlers are provided and correctly wear the required PPE. The PPE must be cleaned and maintained as required by the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides.

Air-Purifying Respirator Availability
The employer of any handler must confirm that an air-purifying respirator and appropriate cartridges/canisters of the type specified in the PPE section of this labeling are immediately available for each handler who will wear one (see Respirator Fit Testing Medical Qualification, and Training section for additional requirements).
Exception: Air-purifying respirators do not need to be made available for handlers performing fumigant site monitoring tasks outside of the buffer zone.

Cartridges or canisters must be replaced when odor or sensory irritation from this product becomes apparent during use, if the measured concentration of chloropicrin is greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm, or after 8 hours of cumulative use, whichever occurs first.

Respirator Fit Testing, Medical Qualification and Training
Using a program that conforms to OSHA’s requirements (see 29 CFR Part 1910.134), employers must verify that any handler who uses a respirator is:
- Fit tested and fit checked,
- Trained, and
- Examined by a qualified medical practitioner to ensure physical ability to safely wear the style of respirator to be worn. A qualified medical practitioner is a physician or other licensed health care professional who will evaluate the ability of a worker to wear a respirator. The initial evaluation consists of a questionnaire that asks about medical conditions (such as a heart condition) that would be problematic for respirator use. If concerns are identified, then additional evaluations, such as a physical exam, might be necessary. The initial evaluation must be done before respirator use begins. Handlers must be reexamined by a qualified medical practitioner if their health status or respirator style or use conditions change.
- Upon request by local/state/federal/tribal enforcement personnel, employers must provide documentation demonstrating how they have complied with these requirements.

Air Monitoring Requirements, Respiratory Protection, and Stop Work Triggers
Air Monitoring Requirements
- When air-purifying respirators (full facepiece or gas mask) are worn, air monitoring samples for chloropicrin must be collected at least every 2 hours in the breathing zone of a handler performing a representative handling task.
- When breathing zone samples are required, they must be taken outside respiratory protection equipment and within a 10-inch radius of the handler’s nose and mouth.
- When using devices to monitor air concentration levels, a direct read detection device, such as an electronic device or a colorimetric device (e.g., Matheson-Kitagawa, Draëger, or Sensidyne) must be used. The devices must have sensitivity of at least 0.15 ppm for chloropicrin. Persons using direct read detection devices must follow the manufacturer’s directions.

1. Handlers Wearing Half-Face Air-Purifying Respirators
(Handlers are required to start work in half-face air-purifying respirators.)
The Air Monitoring Requirements section above must be followed.
- If at any time any handler experiences sensory irritation (tearing, burning of the eyes or nose) while wearing a half-face respirator then either:

- (OPTION 1) An air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by all handlers who remain in the application block or surrounding buffer zone, or
- (OPTION 2) Operations must cease and handlers not wearing air-purifying respirators (full facepiece or gas mask) must leave the application block and surrounding buffer zone.

For OPTION 1 [all handlers are wearing air-purifying respirators (full facepiece or gas mask)]
a) Handlers can resume operations wearing half-face air-purifying respirators if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm, and
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handlers taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced.
b) If at any time (1) a handler experiences sensory irritation when wearing an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask), or (2) a chloropicrin air sample is greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm, then all handler activities must cease and handlers must be removed from the application block and surrounding buffer zone.
i. Handlers can resume operations wearing half-face air-purifying respirators if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm,
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation, and
- Cartridges/canisters have been changed.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced or where sample(s) were greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm.

For OPTION 2 (Operations ceased)
a) Handlers can resume operations wearing half-face air-purifying respirators if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm, and
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handlers taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced.

2. Handlers in Enclosed Cabs (Not Applicable in California)
[Handlers in enclosed cabs are not required to start work in half-face air-purifying respirators if the conditions in the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) section are met.]

The Air Monitoring Requirements section above must be followed.
- If at any time a handler experiences any sensory irritation (tearing, burning of the eyes or nose) while in the enclosed cab, operations must cease and handlers must leave the application block and buffer zone.
- Operations may resume in the enclosed cab provided that:

- Two consecutive chloropicrin samples taken in the breathing zone of the handlers at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 1.5 ppm,
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation, and
- The filter has been changed.

- During the collection of air samples, an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced.

3. Handlers Applying the Fumigant with Equipment That Disrupts the Chisel Trace and Seals the Soil with One Implement, e.g. a Yetter Applicator (Not Applicable in California)
(Handlers applying the fumigant with equipment that disrupts the chisel trace and seals the soil with one implement, e.g., a Yetter applicator, are not required to start work in half-face air-purifying respirators.)

The Air Monitoring Requirements section above must be followed.
- If at any time any handler experiences sensory irritation (tearing, burning of the eyes or nose) then either:

- (OPTION 1) An air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by all handlers who remain in the application block or surrounding buffer zone, or
- (OPTION 2) Operations must cease and handlers not wearing an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must leave the application block and surrounding buffer zone.

For OPTION 1 [all handlers are wearing air-purifying respirators (full facepeice or gas mask)]
a) Handlers can remove air-purifying respirators (full facepiece or gas mask) if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm, and
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced.

b) If at any time: (1) a handler experiences sensory irritation when wearing an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) or (2) a chloropicrin breathing zone sample is greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm, then all handler activities must cease and handlers must be removed from the application block and the surrounding buffer zone.
i. Handlers can resume operations without wearing an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm, and
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced or where sample(s) were greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm.
ii. Handlers can resume operations with wearing an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 1.5 ppm,
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation, and
- Cartridges/canisters have been changed.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced or where sample(s) were greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm.

For OPTION 2 (Operations ceased)
a) Handlers can resume operations if all of the following conditions exist:
- Two consecutive chloropicrin breathing zone samples taken at the handling site at least 15 minutes apart must be less than 0.15 ppm, and
- Handlers do not experience sensory irritation.
- During the collection of air samples an air-purifying respirator (full facepiece or gas mask) must be worn by the handler taking the air samples. Samples must be taken where the sensory irritation was first experienced.

Tarp Perforation and/or Removal
IMPORTANT: Persons perforating, repairing, removing, and/or monitoring tarps are defined, within certain time limitations, as handlers (see Handlers section) and they must be provided the PPE and other protections for handlers as required on this labeling and in the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides.
- Tarps must not be perforated until a minimum of 5 days (120 hours) have elapsed after the application is complete unless a weather condition exists which necessitates early tarp perforation or removal. (See Early Tarp Removal for Broadcast Applications Only and Early Tarp Perforation During Flood Prevention Activities for Bedded Applications Only requirements.)
- If tarps are perforated within 14 days after the application is complete, tarp removal must not begin until at least 2 hours after tarp perforation is complete.
- If tarps are perforated but not removed within 14 days after the application is complete, planting or transplanting must not begin until at least 48 hours after the tarp perforation is complete.
- If tarps are not perforated or removed within 14 days after the application is complete, planting or transplanting may take place while the tarps are being perforated.
- Each tarp panel used for broadcast application must be perforated.
- Tarps may be perforated manually ONLY for the following situations:

- At the beginning of each row when a coulter blade (or other device which performs similarly) is used on a motorized vehicle such as an ATV.
- In fields that are 1 acre or less.
- During flood prevention activities.

- In all other instances, tarps must be perforated (cut, punched, poked, or sliced) only by mechanical methods.
- Tarp perforation for broadcast applications must be completed before noon.
- For broadcast fumigations, tarps must not be perforated if rainfall is expected within 12 hours.

Early Tarp Removal for Broadcast Applications Only
- Tarps may be removed before the required 5 days (120 hours) if adverse weather conditions have compromised the integrity of the tarp, provided that the compromised tarp poses a safety hazard. Adverse weather includes high wind, hail, or storms that blow tarps off the field and create a hazard, e.g., tarps blowing into power lines and onto roads. A compromised tarp is a tarp that due to an adverse weather condition is no longer performing its intended function and is creating a hazard.

Early Tarp Perforation During Flood Prevention Activities for Bedded Applications Only
- Tarp perforation is allowed before the 5 days (120 hours) have elapsed.
- Tarps must be immediately retucked and packed after soil removal.

Entry Restricted Period and Notification
Entry Restricted Period
Entry into the application block (including early entry that would otherwise be permitted under the WPS) by any person – other than a correctly trained and PPE-equipped handler who is performing a handling task listed on this labelling – is PROHIBITED from the start of the application until:
- 5 days (120 hours) after the application is complete for untarped applications, or
- 5 days (120 hours) after the application is complete if tarps are not perforated and removed for at least 14 days after the application is complete, or.
- 48 hours after tarp perforation is complete if tarps will be perforated within 14 days after the application is complete and will not removed for at least 14 days after the application is complete, or
- tarp removal is completed if tarps are both perforated and removed less than 14 days after the application is complete.

NOTES:
- See Tarp Perforation and/or Removal section on this labeling for requirements about when tarps are allowed to be perforated.
- If early tarp removal occurs for a broadcast application the entry restricted period is a minimum of 5 days after the application is complete.
- When listing application information for soil fumigant applications to comply with part 170.122 of the WPS, list the entry restricted period time frame in place of the REI.

Notification
Notify workers of the application by warning them orally and by posting Fumigant Treated Area signs. The Fumigant Treated Area signs must bear the skull and crossbones symbol and state:
- “DANGER/PELIGRO”
- “Area under fumigation, DO NOT ENTER/NO ENTRE”
- “1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin fumigants in use”
- The date and time of fumigation
- The date and time entry prohibition period is over
- Telone C-35
- Name, address, and telephone number of the certified applicator in charge of the fumigation.

Post the Fumigant Treated Area sign instead of the WPS sign for this application, but follow all WPS requirements pertaining to location, legibility, text size, and sign size (40 CFR §170.120).

Post Fumigant Treated Area signs at all entrances to the application block no sooner than 24 hours prior to application.

Fumigant Treated Area signs must remain posted for no less than the duration of the entry restricted period.

Fumigant Treated Area signs must be removed within 3 days after the end of the entry restricted period.

Mandatory Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)
The following GAPs must be followed during all fumigant applications.

Application Timing
Apply Telone C-35 at any time of the year when soil conditions permit. Conditions that allow rapid diffusion of the fumigant as a gas through the soil normally give the best results. Because Telone C-35 does not provide residual control of soil pests, use it as a preplant application before planting each crop.

Tarps (when tarps are used in applications of Telone C-35)
- A written tarp plan must be developed and included in the FMP.
- Once a tarp is perforated, the application is no longer considered tarped.
- Tarps must be installed immediately after the fumigant is applied to the soil.

Weather Conditions
- To determine if unfavorable weather conditions exist or are predicted (see Identifying Unfavorable Weather Conditions section) and whether an application should proceed, the National Weather Service weather forecast must be checked by the certified applicator supervising the application:

- on the day of, but prior to the start of, the application, and
- on a daily basis during the application if the time period from the start of the application until the application is complete is greater than 24 hours.

- Do not apply if an air stagnation advisory issued by the National Weather Service is in effect for the area in which the application is planned, during the application, or the 48 hours after the application is complete.
- Do not apply if light wind conditions (<2 mph) are forecast to persist for more than 18 consecutive hours from the time the application starts until 48 hours after the application is complete.
- Detailed National Weather Service forecasts for local weather conditions, wind speed, and air stagnation advisories may be obtained on-line at http://www.nws.noaa.gov, on NOAA weather radio, or by contacting your local National Weather Service Forecasting Office.

Identifying Unfavorable Weather Conditions
Unfavorable weather conditions block upward movement of air, which results in trapping fumigant vapors near the ground. The resulting air mass can move off site in unpredictable directions. These conditions typically exist within an hour prior to sunset and continue past sunrise and may persist as late as noontime. Unfavorable conditions are common on nights with limited cloud cover and light to no wind and their presence can be indicated by ground fog or smog and can also be identified by smoke from a ground source that flattens out below a ceiling layer and moves laterally in a concentrated cloud.

Telone C-35 Bedded and Broadcast Shank Applications - Additional GAPs
In addition to the GAPs required for all soil fumigation applications with Telone C-35, the following GAPs apply for injection applications.

Soil Preparation:
- Soil must be in good tilth and free of large clods. Large clods can prevent effective soil sealing and reduce effectiveness of the application. If subsurface soil compaction layers (hardpans) are present within the intended fumigation treatment zone, a deep tillage to fracture these layers must occur prior to or during the soil fumigant application.
- Plant residue that is present must not interfere with the application or the soil seal. Non-decomposed plant material may harbor pests that will not be controlled by fumigation. Crop residue that is present must lie flat to permit the soil to be sealed effectively and limit the natural “chimneys” that may occur in the soil when plant residue is present. These “chimneys” allow the soil fumigants to move through the soil quickly and escape into the atmosphere. This may create potentially harmful conditions for workers and bystanders and limits the efficacy of the fumigant. Plant residue on the field serves to prevent soil erosion from both wind and water.
- Trash pulled by the shanks to the ends of the field must be covered with tarp, or soil, depending on the application method before making the turn for the next pass.

Soil Temperature:
- The minimum soil temperature at the depth of injection is 40°F.
- The maximum soil temperature at the depth of injection must not exceed 90°F at the beginning of the application.
- If air temperatures have been above 100°F in any of the three days prior to the start of the application, then soil temperature must be measured and recorded in the FMP. Record temperature measurements at the application depth or 12 inches, whichever is shallower.

Soil Sealing:
- Broadcast Untarped Applications: Use a disc or similar equipment to uniformly mix the soil to at least a depth of 4 to 6 inches to eliminate the chisel or plow traces. Following elimination of the chisel trace, the soil surface must be compacted with a cultipacker, ring roller, and roller in combination with tillage equipment. When using equipment similar to the Yetter applicator (chisel trace disruption and soil sealing are done with one implement), additional tillage and compaction are not required.
- Bedded Applications: Preformed beds must be sealed by disruption of the chisel trace using press sealers, bed shapers, cultipackers, or by reshaping (e.g., relisting, lifting and replacing) the beds immediately following injection. Beds formed at the time of application must be sealed by disrupting the chisel trace using press sealers or bed shapers. When bedding, prebedders such as ripper hippers, hillers, or other prebedders may be used to disrupt the chisel trace and seal the soil. When using equipment similar to the Yetter applicator (chisel trace disruption and soil sealing are done with one implement), additional tillage and compaction are not required. Beds may be formed following the Yetter-type applicator in a normal interval consistent to area production practices.
- Tarped Applications: The use of a tarp does not eliminate the need to minimize chisel traces prior to application of the tarp, such as by using a Nobel plow or other injection shank that disrupts the chisel traces. When bedding, prebedders such as ripper hippers, hillers, or other prebedders may be used to disrupt the chisel trace and seal the soil. When using equipment similar to the Yetter applicator (chisel trace disruption and soil sealing are done with one implement), additional tillage and compaction are not required. Beds may be formed following the Yetter-type applicator in a normal interval consistent to area production practices.

Soil Moisture:
- The soil must be moist 9 inches below the surface. The amount of moisture needed in this zone will vary according to soil type. Surface soil generally dries rapidly and must not be considered in this determination.
- Soil moisture must be determined using one of the following methods:

- the USDA Feel and Appearance Method for testing (see below), or
- an instrument, such as a tensiometer.

- Available water capacity must be equal to or greater than 50% for shank applications. If there is less than 50% available water capacity 9 inches below the surface, the soil moisture must be adjusted. If irrigation is not available and there is adequate soil moisture below 9 inches, soil moisture can be adjusted by discing or plowing before the start of the application. To conserve existing soil moisture, pretreatment irrigation or pretreatment tillage should be done as close to the start of the application as possible.
- Measure soil moisture at a depth of 9 inches at either end of the field, no more than 48 hours prior to the start of the application.

The USDA Feel and Appearance Method for estimating soil moisture as appropriate for the soil texture:
- For coarse textured soils (fine sand and loamy fine sand), the soil is moist enough (50 to 75% available water capacity) to form a weak ball with loose and clustered sand grains on fingers, darkened color, moderate water staining on fingers, will not ribbon.
- For moderately coarse textured soils (sandy loam and fine sandy loam), the soil is moist enough (50 to 75% available water capacity), to form a ball with defined finger marks, very light soil/water staining on fingers, darkened color will not stick.
- For medium textured soils (sandy clay loam, loam, and silt loam), the soil is moist enough (50 to 75% available water capacity), to form a ball, very light staining on fingers, darkened color, pliable, and forms a weak ribbon between the thumb and forefinger.
- For fine textured soils (clay, clay loam, and silty clay loam), the soil is moist enough (50 to 75% available water capacity), to form a smooth ball with defined finger marks, light soil/water staining on fingers, ribbons between thumb and forefinger.
- For fields with more than one soil texture, soil moisture content in the lightest textured (most sandy) areas must comply with this soil moisture requirement. Whenever possible, the field should be divided into areas of similar soil texture and the soil moisture of each area should be adjusted as needed. Coarser textured soils can be fumigated under conditions of higher soil moisture than finer textured soils; however, if the soil moisture is too high, fumigant movement will be retarded and effectiveness of the treatment will be reduced. Previous and/or local experience with the soil to be treated or the crop to be planted can often serve as a guide to conditions that will be acceptable. If there is uncertainty in determining the soil moisture content of the area to be treated, a local extension service agent, soil conservationist, or pest control advisor (agriculture consultant) should be consulted for assistance.

Application Depth:
- Tarped Broadcast Applications: The injection point must be a minimum of 8 inches from the nearest final soil/air interface.
- Tarped and Untarped Bedded Applications: The injection point must be a minimum of 12 inches from the nearest final soil/air interface.
- Untarped Broadcast Applications: The injection point must be a minimum of 12 inches from the nearest final soil/air interface. When using the Nobel plow for untarped broadcast applications, the injection point must be a minimum of 15 inches from the nearest final soil/air interface.
- Untarped Broadcast Deep Applications: The injection point must be a minimum of 18 inches from the nearest final soil/air interface.

Application Methods and Equipment:
Broadcast Applications: Use chisel (shank) or coulter (e.g., Yetter 30-inch Avenger), offset wing shank, Nobel (sweep) plow, or plow-sole application equipment. For best results when using chisel equipment, use ripper-type, forward-swept shanks. Nobel plow equipment is particularly useful for fall fumigation when the soil still contains some standing undecomposed plant material. Subsoiling may be necessary before application. Choose application equipment that allows the deepest application and best soil seal under existing conditions.

- When broadcast applying Telone C-35 in areas east of the Mississippi River, leave the soil undisturbed and unplanted for at least 14 days after application. For best disease control when broadcast applying Telone C-35, use a supplemental application of chloropicrin in-bed at labeled rates, leaving the soil undisturbed for at least 7 days before applying chloropicrin. In either case, follow the most restricted soil fumigation interval guideline of both products before planting the crop. Allow all of the fumigant to dissipate completely before planting the crop. Do not plant if Telone C-35 is detected.
- The fumigant outlet spacing varies with the type of application equipment used.
- With chisel and coulter equipment, a fumigant shank spacing of 12 to 24 inches is recommended. Do not exceed the maximum shank and outlet spacing of 24 inches. The outlet spacing for this equipment may be up to 1 1/2 times the application depth but generally should be equal to the application depth and should not exceed the soil shattering capability of the chisels.
- With plow-sole equipment, a 12-inch outlet spacing is recommended. Do not exceed an outlet spacing of 18 inches.
- With Nobel (sweep) plow equipment, use an outlet spacing of 9 to 12 inches along the sweeps.
- Broadcast application can be made in the same direction or at an angle to the direction of row planting.

Bedded Application (for Row Spacing Greater Than 24 Inches): Use chisel equipment to treat a band of soil where the crop is to be planted, i.e., the plant row. When multiple chisels per plant row are used, space the chisels (fumigant outlets) no more than 12 inches apart.
- When applications to plastic culture vegetables east of the Mississippi River are made at a 12-inch depth or greater prior to vegetable bed formation (e.g., Yetter prebedder or ripper bedder), a supplemental application of chloropicrin in-bed at bed formation is recommended when disease or weed control is a concern. When applications are made in-bed, enough knives/coulters should be used to ensure thorough fumigation. The knives/coulters should not be placed greater than 12 inches apart.
- With certain deeper rooted crops such as potatoes and sugarbeets, higher flow rates may be necessary to ensure adequate treatment of the zone of soil where primary root growth occurs.
- To prevent seed germination problems caused by improper seed-to-soil contact or improper planting depth, do not place the seed directly over the furrow left by the applicator chisel(s). When one chisel is used per plant row, place the seed about 4 inches to one side of the chisel furrow. When two chisels are used per plant row, plant the seed offset from the chisel trace.

Prevention of End Row Spillage:
- Do not apply or allow fumigant to spill onto the soil surface. For each injection line either have a check valve located as close as possible to the final injection point, or drain/purge the line of any remaining fumigant prior to lifting injection shanks from the ground.
- Do not lift injection shanks from the soil until the shut-off valve has been closed and the fumigant has been depressurized (passively drained) or purged (actively forced out via air compressor) from the system.
- The dispensing system must shut off the feed stream when chisels are raised out of the ground. Do not stop or park near any area where dribble from chisel tips has fallen.
- A flow shutoff device must be placed as close as is technically feasible to the fluid discharge point. This can be a ball, poppet, or diaphragm check valve, or full flow shutoff device such as an electric or pneumatically actuated valve.
- Service any system immediately if continuous drip occurs.
- If mechanical check valves and orifices are used, place the check valve above the orifice. Also, isolate the check valve from upstream pressure by installing a main line shut off or bypass valve prior to the manifold.
- Pipe diameter from check valve to injection point must not exceed 1/4 inches ID National Pipe Standard (NPS). Preferably, use the smallest diameter pipe or tubing possible which achieves the required flow rate.
- Alternative end-row spillage devices or methods, such as, but not limited to, micro-bore restricted flow tubing or line purge systems may be used if they provide equal or superior control versus check valves.

Calibration, Set Up, Repair and Maintenance for Application Rigs:
Compatible Materials
- Copper, stainless steel, stainless steel braided hose, steel, brass, Kynar, Kalrez, Chemraz, Santoprene, Hasteloy, Monel, polypropylene, polyethylene, nylon, Teflon, rigid PVC and viton (F/G best).
- Do not expose rigid PVC to undiluted Telone C-35 or more than 1500 ppm of Telone C-35 in the diluted form.

The following materials must not be used with Telone C-35:
- Do not use containers, pumps, or other transfer equipment made of aluminum, magnesium, zinc (including galvanized), cadmium, tin and alloys, or vinyl as under certain conditions Telone C-35 may be severely corrosive to such materials. Unless referring to plasticized vinyl, vinyl and PVC are the same. PVC is listed above under Compatible Materials.
- Buna-N, neoprene and fiberglass have the potential to disintegrate and must not be used with Telone C-35.
- All rigs must include a filter to remove any particulates from the fumigant and for pressurized systems a check valve to prevent backflow of the fumigant into the pressurizing cylinder or the compressed air system.
- Rigs must include a flowmeter or a constant pressure system with orifice plates to ensure the proper amount of fumigant is applied.
- To prevent the backflow of fumigant into the compressed gas cylinder (e.g., nitrogen, other inert gas or compressed air), if used, applicators must:

- Ensure that positive pressure is maintained in the compressed gas cylinder at not less than 200 psi during the entire time it is connected to the application rig if a compressed gas cylinder is used. (This is not required for a compressed air system that is part of the application rig because if the compressor system fails, the application rig will not be operable.)
- Ensure that application rigs are equipped with properly functioning check valves between the compressed gas cylinder or compressed air system and the fumigant cylinder. The check valve is best placed on the outlet side of the pressure regulator and is oriented to only allow compressed gas to flow out of the cylinder or compressed air out of the compressed air system.
- A pressure relief valve must be installed between the regulator and the check valve to ensure a regulator failure does not overpressurize the fumigant cylinder.
- Always pressurize the system with compressed gas or by use of a compressed air system before opening the fumigant cylinder valve.

- Before using a fumigation rig for the first time, or when preparing it for use after storage, the operator must check the following items carefully:

-Check the filter and clean or replace the filter element as required.
- Check all tubes and chisels to make sure they are free of debris and obstructions.
- Check and clean the orifice plates and screen checks, if installed.
- Pressurize the system with compressed gas or compressed air, and check all fittings, valves, and connections for leaks using soap solution.

- Install the fumigant cylinder and connect and secure all tubing. Slowly open the compressed gas or compressed air valve and increase the pressure to the desired level. Slowly open the fumigant cylinder valve, always watching for leaks.
- When the application is complete, close the fumigant cylinder valve and blow residual fumigant out of the fumigant lines into the soil using compressed gas or compressed air. If the rig uses a centrifugal pump instead of compressed gas to inject fumigant into the soil, you may clear residual fumigant from the fumigant lines using an application wand connected to the system’s low point via a drain hose. Place the wand in the soil until all residual fumigant has drained from the system. The want and drain hose must be free of dirt to allow proper drainage. At the end of the application season, disconnect all fumigant cylinders from the application rig. At the end of the season, seal all tubing openings with tape to prevent entry of insects and dirt.

Application equipment must be calibrated and all control systems must be working properly. Proper calibration is essential for application equipment to deliver the correct amount of fumigant uniformly to the soil. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions on how to calibrate your equipment. Usually the equipment manufacturer, fumigant dealer, or Cooperative Extension service can provide assistance.

Planting Interval:
- Leave the soil undisturbed and unplanted for at least 7 days after the application of Telone C-35 is complete. A longer undisturbed interval is required if the soil becomes cold or wet, and for deep-rooted tree, shrub and vine planting sites.
- After fumigation to prevent phytotoxicity, allow the fumigant to dissipate completely before planting the crop. Dissipation is usually complete when Telone C-35 can no longer be detected at the application depth. Under optimum soil conditions for dissipation, a period of 1 week for each 10 gallons per treated acre is generally required for complete dissipation. If tarps that qualify for either a 40% or 60% buffer zone credit are used, a longer dissipation period may be needed. Rapidly germinating seed (i.e., lettuce or radish) and/or seed or transplants to be grown may be used as a bioassay to determine if Telone C-35 is present in the soil at concentrations sufficient to cause plant injury.
- To hasten dissipation especially if heavy rains or low temperatures occur during the treatment period, till the soil to the depth of fumigant application. Use a knife-like chisel without turning the soil to reduce the possibility of recontaminating the treated soil. Dissipation is usually complete when Telone C-35 is no longer evident at the application depth. Seed may be used as a bioassay to determine if Telone C-35 is present in the soil at concentrations sufficient to cause plant injury. Do not plant if Telone C-35 is detected.

Bulk and Non-Bulk Containers:
- Telone C-35 must be transferred through connecting hoses, pipes, and/or couplings sufficiently tight to prevent workers or other persons from coming in contact with liquid Telone C-35.
- All hoses, piping, and tanks used in connection with Telone C-35 shall be of the type appropriate for use under the pressure and vacuum conditions to be encountered.
- External sight gauges shall be equipped with valves so that pipes to sight gauge can be shut off in case of breakage or leakage.
- The mechanical transfer system must be adequate to make necessary measurements of the pesticide being used.
- Shut-off devices must be installed on the exit end of all hoses and at all disconnect points to prevent leakage of Telone C-35 when the transfer is stopped and hose is removed or disconnected. A dry coupler that will minimize pesticide leakage must be installed at the disconnect point.
- The pressure in hoses used to move Telone C-35 beyond a pump must not exceed the manufacturer's maximum pressure specification.

Note: In-tank cleaning of bulk tanks must be performed only by persons who have been specifically trained for this activity. Refer to OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910.146.

Telone C-35 Tree Replant Applications Using Handheld Equipment - Additional GAPs
This application method is used when Telone C-35 is applied to individual tree sites in an existing orchard where shank applications are not possible. In addition to the GAPs required for all soil fumigation applications with Telone C-35, the following GAPs apply for tree replant applications with Telone C-35.

Site Preparation:
- Remove the tree stump and primary root system in each individual tree site with a backhoe or other similar equipment, for example, an auger.
- The backhoe site must be dug in the approximate dimensions of 10 x 10 x 10 feet.
- The hole must be backfilled with soil before application.

Application Depth:
- The fumigant must be injected at least 18 inches into the soil.
- For sites where no restrictive soil layers are present, Telone C-35 can be applied to a depth of 5 feet using an injection auger. For tree replant sites in the western U.S., apply Telone C-35 at a single point in the center of each planting site at a depth of 5 feet below the original soil surface, or into at least three points per planting site, at a depth of 3 feet below the original soil surface.

System Flush:
- Before removing the application wand from the soil the wand must be cleared using nitrogen or compressed air.

Soil Sealing:
- After the wand is cleared and removed from the soil, the injection hole must be either covered with soil and tamped or the soil must be compacted over the injection hole.

Planting Interval:
- To prevent phytotoxicity, ensure that the chemical has dissipated completely before planting. Dissipation is slower in cold, wet soils. Prepare and treat planting sites in the fall and plant in the spring. Do not place in groundwater.

Control of Nematodes
Use Telone C-35 for control of nematodes and symphylans, management of soil diseases, and suppression of wireworms in soils to be planted to vegetable crops, field crops, fruit and nut crops, nursery crops and mint.

Limitations, Restrictions, and Exceptions

VEGETABLE CROPS

Note: For control of symphylans (garden centipedes) or suppression of wireworms, consult the Soil Insects section below for more specific directions and application rates.

When using the coulter system (e.g., Yetter 30-inch Avenger) in moderate to heavy disease pressure, use the maximum rate of Telone C-35 followed by chloropicrin in-bed. Consult your local certified dealer for rate recommendations.

Timings