INDIVIDUAL PLANT TREATMENT METHOD
Surmount herbicide, an emulsiable liquid product containing picloram and fluroxypyr herbicides, is recommended for the control of woody plants and annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in rangeland and permanent grass pastures, fencerows, non-irrigation ditchbanks, and around farm buildings. Surmount may be applied broadcast as a foliar spray or using individual plant treatment methods. Surmount provides both knockdown of emerged plants and residual soil activity to newly emerging susceptible plants. The duration of this soil activity depends on the species and the applied rate.
Use Precautions and Restrictions
Maximum Application Rate: Do not apply more than 3 quarts per acre of Surmount per acre per year (0.5 lb ae fluroxypyr + 0.5 lb ae picloram). When applying this product sequentially with other products containing fluroxypyr and/or picloram, do not apply more than 0.5 lb ae fluroxypyr per acre per year or more than 0.5 lb ae per acre picloram per year.
Grass, Forage and Tree Tolerance
- Established grasses are tolerant to this product.
- Do not use on bentgrass or limpo grass (Hemarthria), unless injury or loss of such plants can be tolerated.
- Do not use on alfalfa, or other desirable forbs, especially legumes such as clover, unless injury or loss of such plants can be tolerated. Seeding of some legumes may not be successful if done within one year of application.
- Many woody species are susceptible to this product. Trees can be affected by root uptake of the herbicide from surface soil or by excretion of the herbicide from the roots of nearby treated trees. Do not apply Surmount within the area occupied by roots of desirable trees, unless such injury can be tolerated.
- When Reseeding Grasses:
When Surmount is applied before reseeding, do not reseed treated areas for a minimum of three weeks after application.
When Surmount is applied following reseeding, to avoid grass injury, do not apply until grass seedlings are well established as indicated by tillering (usually after 4 true leaves have emerged), development of a secondary root system and vigorous growth.
Sprigged bermudagrass. Do not apply Surmount until runners (stolons) have reached at least 6 inches in length. Apply only during favorable growing conditions.
Ground Application: To minimize spray drift, apply Surmount in a total spray volume of 5 or more gallons per acre using spray equipment designed to produce coarse or larger droplets per ASAE S-572 standard. Refer to the spray equipment manufacturer's recommendations for detailed information on nozzle types, arrangement, spacing and operating height and pressure. Spot treatments should be applied only with a calibrated boom to prevent over application. Operate equipment at spray pressures no greater than is necessary to produce a uniform spray pattern. Operate the spray boom no higher than is necessary to produce a uniformly overlapping pattern between spray nozzles. Do not apply with hollow cone-type insecticide nozzles or other nozzles that produce a fine-droplet spray.
Rangeland and Permanent Pastures: Both fixed wing and helicopter equipment may be used to apply this product on rangeland, permanent pastures and pine plantations, but fixed wing aircraft require additional drift mitigation measures.
To minimize spray drift, apply Surmount in a total spray volume of 3 or more gallons per acre using spray. Drift potential is lowest between wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph. However, many factors, including droplet size and equipment type, determine drift potential at any given speed. Application should be avoided below 2 mph due to variable wind direction and high potential for temperature inversion. Spray drift from aerial application can be minimized by applying a coarse spray at per USDA-ARS/PAASS or nozzle manufacturer’s guidelines or by using straight-stream nozzles directed straight back. Do not operate using a spray boom no longer than 75% of wing span or 85% of rotor width. For fixed wing aircraft, maximum speed during application is limited to 140 mph and application h eight above the vegetation canopy should not exceed 10 ft.
Do not store or handle other agricultural chemicals with the same containers used for this product. Do not apply other agricultural chemicals or pesticides with equipment used to apply this product unless equipment has been thoroughly cleaned.
Individual Plant Treatment Methods
High-Volume Foliar Treatment of Individual Plants Using Ground Equipment (Not recommended for brush greater than 8 feet tall): All listed woody plants except as noted in Control of Specific Perennial Plants below
Application Rate: 1 to 2 gallons of Surmount/100 gallons of spray (1-2 % v/v) plus 1 to 2 quarts of non-ionic surfactant
Specific Use Instructions:
Information for Woody Plant Control: Optimum timing period is late spring, after leaves are fully expanded and terminal growth has slowed, through early fall. Application to immature foliage during periods of rapid terminal growth will result in rapid defoliation, but translocation of the herbicide and woody plant control may be reduced. Adequate soil moisture before and after treatment as well as healthy foliage (not reduced by insect or storm damage) at the time of application is important for optimal effectiveness. Avoid application during cold weather. Application is recommended when daily maximum air temperature has exceeded 50ºF for three consecutive days.
For control of brush regrowth, apply only after regrowth is at least 4 ft tall to insure adequate foliage for herbicide absorption. Follow instructions for Information for Woody Plant Control section.
Application: Apply with a backpack or power sprayer using sufficient spray pressure to provide uniform plant coverage without forming a mist and direct spray no higher than tops of target woody plants. Use sufficient spray volume to uniformly wet all leaves, stems, and root collars (pad surfaces and stems in the case of prickly pear or other cactus), but avoid runoff. To minimize spray drift, a drift control additive approved for growing crops is recommended. A dye marker may be added to the spray mixture as a means of marking treated plants.
Use of a nonionic surfactant at the recommended rate (usually 0.25% to 0.5% v/v) may improve herbicidal efficacy and is recommended.
Control of Specific Woody Plants or Cactus:
Chinese tallowtree: Best results may be expected on trees under 8 feet tall. Use 0.5% to 1% (volume/volume) spray solution of Surmount. Spray between July and September, before leaves have begun to turn yellow. Wet all leaves thoroughly, especially the terminal buds of each branch. Avoid treatment when leaves or wet or during periods of rapid new growth.
Huisache: Use a 1.0% v/v solution in water. Fall application works best. Wet all leaves thoroughly, especially the terminal buds of each branch. Avoid spray when leaves or wet or during periods of rapid new growth.
Locust (black or honey): Use a 0.5% to 1.0% v/v solution of Surmount in water. Apply in spring, when leaves are mature.
Prickly pear: Use a 0.5% to 1.0% v/v solution of Surmount in water. A coarse droplet size applied with an adjustable cone nozzle is recommended. Application may be made any time of year, but fall application may be most effective. Treatment effects are slow to appear and total plant kill may require 2 to 3 years. Do not spray when the plants are wet. Mechanical injury such as bruising or puncturing of the pricklypear pad surfaces may speed up and improve control.
Macartney rose: Use a 0.5% to 1.0% v/v solution of Surmount in water. Delay treatment for 9-12 months after mowing. Apply in spring or fall to Macartney rose plants greater than 3 feet tall.
Multiflora rose: Use a 1% to 1.5% v/v solution of Surmount in water. Apply from budding through flowering. Delay treatment for 9-12 months after mowing.
Maximum Use Rate: For individual plant treatment with high-volume foliar sprays, do not apply more than 3 pints of Surmount per acre per year. This is equivalent to 37 gallons of total spray mixture per acre at the 1 gallon Surmount /100 gallons rate or 18.5 gallons of total spray mixture per acre at the 2 gallons Surmount/100 gallons rate.