Martin Bohn, corn breeder in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois. “We had to look into lines from Argentina, Brazil and the Caribbean Islands to find it.” Until alternate forms of resistance come to the market, farmers will have to use tried-and-true methods to manage the pest. “Crop rotation is the best option. If you can’t rotate, plant something with two modes of action. If you can’t do that, use a single mode of action and a soil-applied insecticide—that’s the bare minimum,” Ludwick says. “If you can’t do that, and have CRW present, you’re out of luck.” Reinhart keeps resistance manage-ment top of mind. “We use SmartStax on our corn-on-corn acres and are ready with insecticides if we see a lot of beetles,” he says. While only five states have officially documented resistance, it’s likely present in other states. Since it only takes up to four years of pressure for the pest to become resistant to most of the proteins, the rest of the U.S. is a ticking time bomb.